In this photograph taken on September 7, 2017, a house burns in Gawdu Tharya village near Maungdaw in Rakhine state in northern Myanmar. STR/AFP/Getty Images

“They burnt everything. They killed Moulavi, my husband.”

In late 2017, Dildar Begum fled her village of Buthidaung, a town in Myanmar’s Rakhine state, which has been consumed by escalating crackdowns on its Muslim-minority Rohingya population.

“He was standing in front of our house,” Begum said. “They beat him to death.”

Begum now lives in the swelling Kutupalong refugee camp across the border from Myanmar in a city called Cox’s Bazar on the southeast coast of Bangladesh. She is among the nearly 900,000 Rohingya who have fled to this camp amid reports of ethnic cleansing perpetuated by Myanmar’s security forces.

Bangladesh today hosts the largest population of refugees, according to the International Organization for Migration, with nearly 1 million Rohingya crammed into 38 refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar.

Handcuff-journalist
A journalist protests the arrest of Reuters journalists Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo (pictured in posters behind) in Pyay, Myanmar on Dec. 27, 2017.
THIHA LWIN/AFP/Getty Images

The Rohingya crisis is part of a larger narrative of distrust and governance challenges within Myanmar, stemming from a complex history of colonialism, ethnic and religious tensions, and geopolitical concerns.

For an outsider, the internal strife can be baffling and is exacerbated by the increased restrictions on press freedoms by the Myanmar government.

In this closed media environment, reporting on basic facts on the ground is challenging and dangerous. It has become even more difficult to uncover the context necessary to understand events. With two Reuters journalists recently arrested for uncovering evidence of a mass grave in Rakhine state, barriers to independent journalism and an overreliance on social and state-run media in Myanmar have led to a distorted and incomplete picture of the Rohingya crisis.

Cascading Effects of Violence and Suppression

The current crisis in Myanmar stems from religious and ethnic differences between the ethnic minority Rohingya Muslims and the majority Buddhist government and society, a conflict that stretches back centuries.

While the Rohingya claim to have longstanding roots within Rakhine state, the Myanmar government has long refused to grant them citizenship and considers the Rohingya to be illegal immigrants.

Recently, this struggle has led to physical violence on both sides, creating a refugee and humanitarian crisis that has received renewed international attention.

There are accusations and reports that Myanmar’s government forces have brutally beaten, killed, and raped the Rohingya, while burning their homes, precipitating a massive exodus of Rohingya into neighboring countries.

In response, Rohingya insurgents, the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA), have violently attacked local Myanmar police forces.

Amid the fighting, the Myanmar government has restricted national and international media organizations from covering the conflict by denying them access to Rakhine state and the Rohingya, limiting accurate reporting on what the United Nations has officially deemed as a case of ethnic cleansing.

In the place of quality journalism, Myanmar’s citizens often find sensational, sanitized, and outright fake news, much of it via social media, including state-sponsored propaganda.

In a TV broadcast last spring that chronicled a government investigative team’s trip to Rakhine state, the state broadcaster inaccurately translated claims by a young woman who said that she had seen women in her village being raped by Myanmar’s soldiers. The translator tells investigators that the young woman did not see any instances of rape.

Jeffrey Rathke, a former deputy press spokesman with the State Department, says the clouded media environment in Myanmar is a worrisome development.

“The effect that it is having on public opinion—which is what all policy is based on to some extent—is troubling,” Rathke said.

Attacks on Traditional Media

The attacks on press freedom in Myanmar are part of an alarming trend of increased press censorship and violence against journalists around the world.

According to Freedom House’s Freedom of the Press 2017 report, global press freedom declined in 2016 to its lowest point in 13 years. Today, only 13 percent of the world’s population enjoys a free press. This decline in press freedom has dramatically impacted journalists’ access to information and personal safety.

LISTEN: The role of journalism under threat
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Courtney Radsch
Courtney Radsch
Advocacy Director at Committee to Protect Journalists

The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), which tracks attacks on and jailing of journalists worldwide, reported that the number of incidents, including the deaths of 44 journalists, has steadily risen to record numbers in 2017. This increase, which also coincides with the explosion of “fake news,” has purportedly been fueled by what critics describe as the United States’ retreat from its historic role as a champion of human rights and freedom of the press.

“Now is currently the worst time to be a journalist,” says CPJ advocacy director Courtney Radsch.

According to CPJ, President Donald Trump’s ambivalence toward global human rights crises and his disdain for the press have emboldened oppressive governments like Turkey, China, Russia, Egypt, and Myanmar to crack down further on press freedoms and civil liberties.

In an interview with the New York Times last December, U Kyaw San Hla, a government official in Myanmar, said, “there is no such thing as Rohingya.” He then followed the comment with President Trump’s common refrain, “It is fake news.”

An Uncertain Future

The global constriction on press freedom has given rise to a new wave of journalism. Citizen journalists are circumventing strict regulations and physical boundaries that conventional journalists face by leveraging informal channels, namely through social media.

Using camera phones to take photos and videos, citizen journalists add visual components to enhance their stories and even gain global attention. CPJ’s Radsch observes that she has seen this in Syria.

LISTEN: The challenges to bearing witness in closed environments
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Justin Kenny
Justin Kenny
Former producer and editor for PBS NewsHour, Reuters Television

“After Western and foreign media and journalists were prevented from going into the country and gaining access…the world was reliant on citizen journalists who literally risked their lives…to bring images and reporting from the ground,” Radsch says.

While this new and unregulated age of social media has allowed citizens to broadcast to the world, it has also given rise to fake news that engenders hatred, distrust, and apathy. It has also empowered vast state-sponsored disinformation campaigns, including Russia’s meddling in the United States’ 2016 presidential election.

The Myanmar government has used similar techniques to bolster public support for its actions against the Rohingya. Last year, Aung San Suu Kyi’s councilor’s office labeled reports of abuses against the Rohingya in the Rakhine state as “a huge iceberg of misinformation.”

Suppression of quality investigative reporting within Myanmar has not only prevented the outside world from looking in, it also has had a chilling effect on domestic journalism.

Publications like the Myanmar Times—where Wa Lone, one of the jailed Reuters journalists previously worked—have succumbed to intense pressure and now avoid any critical coverage of the government or military.

The threat to press freedom in Myanmar has also disrupted information about vital health care.

According to a January report from the international humanitarian organization Medecins Sans Frontieres, diphtheria has spread across the refugee camps in Cox’s Bazar. Aid to the camps, which have raised concerns by UN aid and health organizations for their crowded and often dangerous conditions, however, may be interrupted by false information disseminated by the government. Last year, the government blocked aid agencies from entering the refugee camps, alleging that the aid workers were helping the Rohingya, who Suu Kyi’s state councilor’s office referred to as “terrorists.”

The Myanmar government continues to deny categorically any wrongdoing against the Rohingya minority, even as reports of rape and genocide slowly come to light.

Rohingya refugees walk on a road after arriving on the Bangladesh side of the Naf River at Shah Porir Dwip after fleeing their villages in Myanmar, on September 19, 2017 in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.
Kevin Frayer/Getty Images

In a conversation with reporters last month at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, former U.S. ambassador to Myanmar Derek Mitchell spoke about how vital journalists are both in attaining and interpreting events in hazy information environments.

“The role of the journalist is now more important than ever before because their real skill is not just in getting information, but in their ability to make sense out of that information,” Mitchell said.

In the meantime, the Rohingya’s future remains uncertain.


The role of the journalist is now more important than ever before because their real skill is not just in getting information, but in their ability to make sense out of that information.

Wa Lone and Kyaw Soe Oo, the two Reuters journalists who were detained last December, had their application for bail denied in February. They remain imprisoned even as evidence of five additional mass graves has recently been uncovered. They remain at Yangon’s notorious Insein prison, which is known to repress political dissidents through coercion and other inhumane conditions, until their next hearing later in February.

While the Myanmar and Bangladeshi governments brokered a time frame in January to repatriate the hundreds of thousands of exiled Rohingya refugees, questions remain about how they will be able to return. The repatriation plans so far do not include instructions on whether Myanmar will grant the refugees citizenship, whether they will recognize their home in Rakhine state, or whether their safety is ensured.

“We came here [to] save our life, now we want justice from [the] world,” says Dil Mohammad, another refugee at Kutupalong refugee camp in Cox’s Bazar.

“If the government can ensure our safety, then we are ready to go [to] Myanmar. Otherwise we want to stay here.”

Rohingya refugees walk across Paddy fields at dusk after crossing the border from Myanmar on September 09, 2017 in Gundum, Bangladesh
Rohingya refugees walk across Paddy fields at dusk after crossing the border from Myanmar on September 09, 2017 in Gundum, Bangladesh
Dan Kitwood/Getty Images

If you are interested in learning more about the Rohingya and the border crisis in Myanmar and Bangladesh, please visit:

UN High Commissioner for Refugees

International Organization for Migration

Human Rights Watch

Contributors

Stephen Brickey

Syracuse University
Stephen Brickey is a Lieutenant Commander in the United States Coast Guard, most recently serving as the Commanding Officer of the CGC GEORGE COBB. A graduate candidate in Syracuse University's Public Diplomacy program, Stephen is earning an M.A. in International Relations from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, an M.S. in Public Relations from the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, and a C.A.S. in Security Studies from the Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism.

Rainea Cumberbatch

Syracuse University
Rainea Cumberbatch is pursuing a dual master’s in international relations and public relations from Syracuse University’s Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and S.I. Newhouse School of Communication. She previously taught English to middle school students in Lille, France. She currently serves as Public Affairs intern in the International Trade Administration at the Department of Commerce. Her current interests are cultural diplomacy and foreign languages.

Jena Daggett

Syracuse University
Jena Daggett is a public diplomacy graduate candidate at the Maxwell School for Citizenship and Public Affairs and the S.I. Newhouse School for Public Communications, with certificates in counterterrorism and conflict resolution. She is a graduate researcher at the Institute for Veterans and Military Families and previously received a National Science Foundation grant for research in conflict management and peace science. Her current research interests focus on gastrodiplomacy and conflict transformation. She is currently interning at NORAD/US NORTHCOM.

Robert Gaudio

Syracuse University
Rob Gaudio is a graduate candidate at the Maxwell School of Citizenship & Public Affairs and the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications. He previously served as the State and Federal Affairs intern at the American Chemistry Council in Washington D.C., and worked in Buenos Aires, Argentina for RACI, an NGO conglomerate where he served as an Investor Relations intern. In January, Rob will intern with the Senate Committee on Finance.

Brooke Hirsheimer

Syracuse University

Brooke Hirsheimer is pursuing a master's in international relations and public relations at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communication at Syracuse University. She completed previous internships at Grey Advertising in New York City and the World Meteorological Organization in Geneva, Switzerland. Brooke is currently interning on the Media and External Affairs team at the World Wildlife Fund.

Mary Johnson

Syracuse University
Mary Johnson is a public diplomacy graduate candidate at the Maxwell School for Citizenship and Public Affairs and the S.I. Newhouse School for Public Communications. She currently serves as the Public Affairs intern with the United States Agency for International Development’s Bureau for Legislative and Public Affairs. Previously, she served as the Cultural Diplomacy intern with More Europe, and the Cultural Diplomacy Platform in Brussels, Belgium. She is a native of Dayton, Ohio.

Hayley King

Syracuse University
Hayley King is pursuing a dual master’s in international relations and public relations from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications. She currently serves as the Public Relations Chair of the Syracuse University Association of Public Diplomacy Scholars. As a 2016 Rangel Fellow, she will enter the United States Foreign Service as a public affairs officer upon graduation.

Aaron Mwewa

Syracuse University
Aaron Mwewa is an award-winning media practitioner who has worked at community, national, and international levels. In 2016, Aaron was the Focal Point Media Liaison Officer on the communications team for the Inter-Parliamentary Union of 136th Assembly of Parliaments from around the world which was held in Zambia. Currently, he runs a publishing company in his home country, Zambia, and is pursuing a master’s in public diplomacy at Syracuse University.

Andrea Rosero

Syracuse University
Andrea Rosero is a public diplomacy graduate candidate at the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications & Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. She is a recipient of the Maxwell African Scholars Union grant, and previously collaborated with the United Nations Migration Agency (IOM), where she investigated and reported migration trends. She will be joining the Washington D.C. office of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Anran Yu

Syracuse University
Anran Yu is earning her master’s degree in International Relations and Public Relations from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs and the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications. She currently works at the World Bank Group, focusing on Public-Private Partnerships. Previously, she worked in Temasek Holdings’ think tank division in Singapore focusing on corporate governance among institutional investors. She also has experience in marketing communication and comparative analysis.

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